The intuitive scenario is that the induced currents surrounding each magnetic line counteract each other, so that a net induced current is concentrated only near the periphery of plasma. It means the hottest part of plasma is off-axis. Therefore, the induction plasma is something like an "annular shell".
Observing on the axis of plasma, it looks like a bright "bagel". The state of plasma gas usually argon will swiftly transit from glow-discharge to arc-break and create a stable induction plasma. For the case of atmospheric ambient pressure conditions, ignition is often accomplished with the aid of a Tesla coil , which produces high-frequency, high-voltage electric sparks that induce local arc-break inside the torch and stimulate a cascade of ionization of plasma gas, ultimately resulting in a stable plasma.
Induction plasma torch is the core of the induction plasma technology.
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Despite the existence of hundreds of different designs, an induction plasma torch consists of essentially three components:. Q 1 is the carrier gas that is usually introduced into the plasma torch through an injector at the center of the torch head. As the name indicates it, the function of Q 1 is to convey the precursor powders or liquid into plasma.
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Argon is the usual carrier gas, however, many other reactive gases i. Q 2 is the plasma forming gas, commonly called as the "Central Gas".
In today's induction plasma torch design, it is almost unexceptional that the central gas is introduced into the torch chamber by tangentially swirling. The swirling gas stream is maintained by an internal tube that hoops the swirl till to the level of the first turn of induction coil. All these engineering concepts are aiming to create the proper flow pattern necessary to insure the stability of the gas discharge in the center of the coil region. Q 3 is commonly referred to as " Sheath Gas " that is introduced outside the internal tube mentioned above.
The flow pattern of Q 3 can be either vortex or straight. The function of sheath gas is twofold. It helps to stabilize the plasma discharge; most importantly, it protects the confinement tube, as a cooling medium.
In practice, the selection of plasma gases in an induction plasma processing is first determined by the processing chemistry, i. Then suitable second gas may be selected and added to argon, so as to get a better heat transfer between plasma and the materials to treat. Since the energy dissipation in the discharge takes places essentially in the outer annular shell of plasma, the second gas is usually introduced along with the sheath gas line, rather than the central gas line.
Following the evolution of the induction plasma technology in laboratory, the major advantages of the induction plasma have been distinguished:. These features of induction plasma technology, has found niche applications in industrial scale operation in the last decade. The successful industrial application of induction plasma process depends largely on many fundamental engineering supports.
Plasma processing induced by microwaves CVD, cleaning, nanoparticles This topic includes fundamental and engineering studies about microwave plasma technology addressing application fields such as semiconductor and material processing, diamond film deposition, waste remediation and others. Conference App A conference App will help attendees make the most of their experience!! Topics include, but are not limited to: Energy Production by Microwaves including renewable energy and chemicals Plasma processing induced by microwaves CVD, cleaning, nanoparticles Only atoms with a positive or a negative charge can be accelerated by electric field; for this, electrons must be removed from neutral atoms to create a positively-charged ion.
The process must then be reversed before injection into the fusion plasma; otherwise the electrically-charged ion would be deflected by the magnetic field of the plasma cage.
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In neutral beam injection systems, the ions pass through a cell containing gas where they recover their missing electron and can be injected as fast neutrals into the plasma. There is space for three neutral beam injectors on ITER two will be installed first, with space for a third if the operational program requires it.
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At right, a smaller bay will receive the diagnostic neutral beam. Two neutral beam injectors—each one delivering a deuterium beam of A third neutral beam will be used for diagnostic purposes. More on the Neutral Beam Test Facility here. Ion and electron cyclotron heating methods use radio waves at different frequencies to bring additional heat to the plasma, much in the same way that a microwave oven transfers heat to food through microwaves.