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Publication detailing the work carried out by British women on the home front. Usage terms Public Domain The legacy of the war and assumptions about gender roles Because the war destroyed so many lives and reshaped the international political order, it is understandable to view it as a catalyst for enormous changes in all aspects of life, including ideas about gender and the behaviour of women and men.

The messy reality of the lives of individual men and women is much harder to generalise about. There were visible changes in European politics, society, and culture but also a certain degree of continuity. Most notably, the aftermath of the war witnessed women gaining voting rights in many nations for the first time.

Imperial subjects and racial minorities, such as those in the United States, continued to be unable to exercise their full political rights. Socially, certain demographic trends that were prevalent before the war persisted after it. Family sizes continued to shrink despite renewed anxiety about falling birth rates and ongoing insistence on the significance of motherhood for women and their nations.

Economically, returning men displaced many women from their wartime occupations, and many households now headed by women due to the loss of male breadwinners faced new levels of hardship. Women did not gain or retain access to all professions, and they did not come close to gaining equal pay for comparable work.

Usage terms Public Domain Gender and cultural change Cultural change may be the hardest to gauge. New forms of social interaction between the sexes and across class lines became possible, but expectations about family and domestic life as the main concern of women remained unaltered.

Furthermore, post-war societies were largely in mourning. The extent to which the process of rebuilding required the combined efforts of men and women in public and perhaps even more so in private shows the shared human toll of this extraordinary conflict.

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The text in this article is available under the Creative Commons License. Changing lives: gender expectations and roles during and after World War One. Considering the roles of both men and women during World War One, Susan R Grayzel asks to what extent the war challenged gender roles and to what degree society accepted them. Their daughters have realized their dreams. In the academic world Jewish women became professors in a variety of fields. Annie Kriegel b. Annie Cohen-Solal b. Beginning in the prewar years, Jewish women also achieved significant positions in science and medicine, particularly in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry, and chemistry.

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They also expanded their presence in law, a field which became open to women in France early in the twentieth century. Jewish women have also been visible in entertainment, in broadcasting, and in politics. Although antisemites have attacked the presence of Jews in public life, Jews seem to have achieved widespread acceptance. Simone Signoret — was one of the most popular actresses in France and internationally during her long career.

France Between the Wars

Behind the scenes, a number of Jewish women, among them Diane Kurys b. A Jewish woman, the television journalist Anne Sinclair b. Perhaps the single best known French Jewish woman in politics is Simone Veil b.


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Well-educated and generally middle-class, Jewish women in France now partake of the rights accorded to Jews and women as citizens of the French state. Their access to virtually all positions in society reflects the gradual extension in the twentieth century of full civic and political rights to women. As women, they were fully emancipated more than a century after France proclaimed the liberation of the Jews.

Benbassa, Esther. The Jews of France. Detroit: ; Birnbaum, Pierre. The Jews of the Republic. Stanford: ; Green, Nancy. The Pletzl of Paris. New York: ; ibid. The Emancipation of the Jews of Alsace. New Haven: ; ibid. Berkeley and Los Angeles: ; Klein, Luce. New York: ; Bard, Christine. Les filles de Marianne. Louise Weiss. France Between the Wars: Gender and Politics.

London: Hyman, Paula E.. Jewish Women's Archive. Sarah Bernhardt — as Hamlet. London, circa Institution: U. Library of Congress. Paulette Fink, born Paulette Weill, in France, c. Dominique Schnapper was instrumental in the creation of a center for Jewish studies at the School for Advanced Studies in the Social Sciences in Paris. Courtesy of Dominique Schnapper. Institution: Rachel Ertel. A prayer for the male head of household went as follows: My God, in your goodness you have given me a wife, the inseparable companion of my passage through this life…May I never forget that if strength and reason are the perquisite of my sex, hers is subject to the weakness of body and the feeling of the soul; do not permit me, Lord, to be unjust toward her and to demand of her qualities that are in no way in her nature…May her weakness even be her support against my strength; for it would be cruel to take unfair advantage of it toward a weak and delicate being whom love and law have conferred to my protection.

Your name. About text formats. Web page addresses and email addresses turn into links automatically. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. Courtesy of Yeshiva University, New York. Khoury , Philip S. Knibiehler , Y.

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